The negative influence of violence on hockey

Special to The Globe and Mail Published February 11, Updated May 11, Welcome to Health Advisorwhere contributors share their knowledge in fields ranging from fitness to psychology, pediatrics to aging. When fights break out, do you shout words of encouragement for the fourth lines sent out to start the game?

The negative influence of violence on hockey

Kelly, Rotton, and Culver suspect four factors: A fifth factor should be considered, as well: Reporters also "favor those who claim that the full moon influences behavior. Anecdotal evidence for lunar effects is not hard to find and reporters know that one good anecdote trumps ten scientific studies when it comes to reader interest, even though such evidence is unreliable for establishing significant correlations.

Relying on personal experience ignores the possibility of self-deception and confirmation bias.

Effects of violence in sports by Cameron Sun on Prezi

Such evidence may be unreliable, but it is nonetheless persuasive. For example, Eugen Jonasa Slovakian psychiatrist, was inspired by this bit of folklore to create a method of birth control and fertility largely rooted in astrological superstitions.

The belief that there are more births during a full moon persists today among many educated people. Scientific studies, however, have failed to find any significant correlation between the full moon and number of births Kelly and Martens ; Martens et al. InBenski and Gerin reported that they had analyzed birthdays of 4, babies born in a clinic in France and "found them equally distributed throughout the synodic phase lunar cycle" Kelly, et al.

InItalian researchers Periti and Biagiotti reported on their study of 7, spontaneous deliveries over a 5-year period at a clinic in Florence. They found "no relationship between moon phase and number of spontaneous deliveries" ibid.

Despite the fact that there is no evidence of a significant correlation between phases of the moon, the menstrual cycleand fertility, some people not only maintain that there is, they have a "scientific" explanation for the non-existent correlation.

The light of the moon is a very minor source of light in most women's lives, and is no more likely than the moon's gravitational force to have a significant effect on a woman's ovulation. Furthermore, the average menstrual cycle is 28 days but varies from woman to woman and month to month, while the length of the lunar month is a consistent Furthermore, it would seem odd that natural selection would favor a method of reproduction for a species like ours that depended on the weather.

Clouds are bound to be irregularly and frequently blocking moonlight, which would seem to hinder rather than enhance our species' chance for survival.

Some mythmakers believe that long ago women all bled in sync with the moon, but civilization and indoor electric lighting or even the discovery of fire by primitive humans have disturbed their rhythmic cycle.

This theory may seem plausible until one remembers that there are quite a few other mammals on the planet that have not been affected by firelight or civilization's indoor lighting and whose cycles aren't in harmony with the moon. In short, given the large number of types of mammals on our planet, one would expect that by chance some species' estrus and menstrual cycles would harmonize with lunar cycles e.

It is doubtful that there is anything of metaphysical significance in this. What we do know is that there has been very little research on hormonal or neurochemical changes during lunar phases. James Rotton's search of the literature "failed to uncover any studies linking lunar cycles to substances that have been implicated as possible correlates of stress and aggression e.

One would think that this area would be well-studied, since hormones and neurochemicals are known to affect menstruation and behavior. Many people seem to think that since the moon affects the ocean's tides, it must be so powerful that it affects the human body as well.

The lunar force is actually a very weak tidal force. A mother holding her child "will exert 12 million times as much tidal force on her child as the moon" Kelly et al. Abell claims that a mosquito would exert more gravitational pull on your arm than the moon would Abell Despite these physical facts, there is still widespread belief that the moon can cause earthquakes.

The negative influence of violence on hockey

The fact that the human body is mostly water largely contributes to the notion that the moon should have a powerful effect on the human body and therefore an effect on behavior. Eighty percent of the surface of the earth is water. Furthermore, the moon only affects unbounded bodies of water, while the water in the human body is bounded.

Also, the tidal force of the moon on the earth depends on its distance from earth, not its phase.

Lunar effects (full moon) The Skeptic's Dictionary -

Whereas the synodic period is Perigee when the moon is closest to earth "can occur at any phase of the synodic cycle" Kelly et al. Higher tides do occur at new and full moons, but not because the moon's gravitational pull is stronger at those times.

Rather, the tides are higher then because "the sun, earth, and moon are in a line and the tidal force of the sun joins that of the moon at those times to produce higher tides" ibid.:"Deceptions is a film about deceit.

Starting with 9/11 and proceeding through to Bush and then Obama it becomes clear that there is an elite of a much higher order. Hockey is too violent 40% Say Yes 60% Say No Yes hockey is violent hockey shows people that violence is the key to everything. Take the recent incidents in NFL for example.

Aggression, in fact, is not solely attributed to influence by sports (especially hockey), but to a number of factors when considering the young age that children are. As a follow-up to Tuesday’s post about the majority-minority public schools in Oslo, the following brief account reports the latest statistics on the cultural enrichment of schools in Austria.

Vienna is the most fully enriched location, and seems to be in roughly the same situation as Oslo. Many thanks to Hermes for the translation from Decreasing Negative Effects Reducing the negative effects of violence in sports is a hot topic.

In a report published in the "Canadian Medical Association Journal" in , researchers evaluated the effectiveness of changing ice .

The term cougar is an illustration of how modern culture defines and prescribes the roles for (heterosexual) women and men in society. Other similar stereotypes include sugar daddy or sugar mama: what these have in common in addition to an age difference is an imbalance of power and wealth.

Earlier in May, authorities arrested Egyptian activist Amal Fathy after she posted a video online in which she also lashed out at the state after a negative experience in and outside a local bank.

Violence in ice hockey - Wikipedia