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Received Apr 10; Accepted Oct Abstract Background Many rural hospitals in Australia and New Zealand do not have an on-site pharmacist. Sessional employment of a local pharmacist offers a potential solution to address the clinical service needs of non-pharmacist rural hospitals.
This study explored sessional service models involving pharmacists and factors enablers and challenges impacting on these models, with a view to informing future sessional employment. Methods A series of semi-structured one-on-one interviews was conducted with rural pharmacists with experience, or intention to practise, in a sessional employment role in Australia and New Zealand.
Participants were identified via relevant newsletters, discussion forums and referrals from contacts.
Results Seventeen pharmacists were interviewed: Most participants provided sessional hospital services on a weekly basis, mainly focusing on inpatient medication review and consultation.
Enhanced employment opportunities, district support and flexibility in services facilitated the continuous operation of the sessional service. Conclusions There is potential to address clinical pharmacy service needs in rural hospitals by cross-sector employment of pharmacists. The reported sessional model arrangements, factors impacting on sessional employment of pharmacists and learnings shared by the participants should assist development of similar models in other rural communities.
Clinical pharmacy, Hospital, Medication management, Pharmacist, Rural, Sessional, Service models, Qualitative Background Pharmacists play a major role in promoting optimal medication management.
Despite this evidence, there is sub-optimal provision of medication management activities, such as inpatient medication reviews, medication reconciliation and medication counselling, in rural Australian hospitals [ 6 - 9 ].
This is mainly a result of rural pharmacist shortages, as rural areas pose a challenge to recruit and retain health practitioners, and to sustain adequate health services locally [ 10 ].
Although the roles of registered nurses in these rural hospitals have been extended to provide medication supply and basic medication information services, there have been reports of clinical and logistical challenges faced by the nurses, and the need for additional medication management support has been identified [ 6791113 ].
A strategy adopted by some rural hospitals is the contracting of existing private healthcare providers to deliver services that the hospital is unable to provide internally [ 101415 ].
A common example is a rural general practitioner providing primary care services in private practice and being employed as a visiting medical officer to provide services at the local hospital [ 1014 ]. Similar sessional employment has been reported for certain allied health professionals, such as optometrists, dietitians, podiatrists, occupational therapists and physiotherapists [ 71415 ].
Despite existing sessional models, there is a paucity of research on similar models involving pharmacists. A scoping study on medication management issues in a rural community in Australia identified opportunities for sessional services involving pharmacists [ 816 ].
However, there are no specific studies exploring the extent of sessional pharmacist services, employment arrangements, or challenges and enablers, which prompted the current research. Another driver for this study was the emerging trend for, but limited studies on, cross-sector, public-private partnerships to optimise resources in provision of health services [ 1718 ].
The aim of this study was to explore sessional employment models involving pharmacists providing services to rural hospitals.
The objectives were to identify:Seventeen pharmacists were interviewed: eight with ongoing sessional roles, five with sessional experience, and four working towards sessional employment.
Most participants provided sessional hospital services on a weekly basis, mainly focusing on inpatient medication review and consultation. TABLE OF CONTENTS PAGE environment captured in the National ICT Policy of and sector policy in Sessional Paper No.
1 of The strategy has also been developed in line with the E-Government Strategy of monitoring and review in line with changing priorities in the sector.
Apr 07, · Through Sessional Paper No. 6 of , on “Co-operatives in a Liberalized Economic Environment”, the government reviewed its involvement in the management of co- operatives by providing a legislative framework under which co-operatives were to .
19/03/ 1 Sessional Research Paper “Long Term Care – A Review of Global Funding Models” Sue Elliott, SophieSue Elliott, Sophie Golds,Ian, Ian Sissons, Hamish Wilson, Hamish Wilson. The Sessional Paper No.
2 on Unemployment, Sessional Paper No. 1 of on Economic Management for Renewed Growth, together with the Sixth National Development Plan (), tried to. The learning process, in other words, is cut at its most vital point, discouraging the sessional from marking the paper in any way beyond the bare limit whilst depriving the student of the rigour necessary to benefit from that said education.